Q&A with Studio Papaver about their collective intelligence game for population shrinkage

Received a newspaper from the future

Anne and Zineb of Studio Papaver got in touch with me towards the end of last year, ask­ing if I would advise them on a pro­ject they were start­ing at the Studio for Unsolicited Architecture. They were work­ing on the prob­lem of pop­u­la­tion shrink­age, and they were think­ing of mak­ing a game. Architects mak­ing games—as reg­u­lar read­ers prob­ably know I have a long-standing fas­cin­a­tion for archi­tec­ture and urban plan­ning, so I could not refuse. Almost half a year later and Anne and Zineb are done, at least with the first stage of the pro­ject. The res­ult is called ‘Let’s Shrink!’—a col­lect­ive intel­li­gence game for res­id­ents of regions anti­cip­at­ing shrink­age, which gen­er­ates pos­sible future solu­tions through play. I’m so impressed with what Anne and Zineb have done that I asked them a few ques­tions. Below are their answers, which I think will give you a good under­stand­ing of what shrink­age is, why Studio Papaver decided to make a game, how they went about this and what the end res­ult is like.

1. Can you tell us a bit about pop­u­la­tion shrink­age, what it is, how it hap­pens, and so on?

We are quite used to the fact that the num­ber of res­id­ents and house­holds are grow­ing. It has been like that for sev­eral dec­ades. But since a couple of years, this on-going growth has come to a stop. Instead, the num­bers of inhab­it­ants and house­holds are declin­ing. This phe­nomenon is called ‘pop­u­la­tion shrink­age’. Shrinkage is present in some bor­der areas in the Netherlands—in Zeeuws Vlaanderen, in the north­east of Groningen and in the south of Limburg—but also in other European coun­tries, like in some parts of Germany, France and Spain.

The fact that less people are liv­ing in cer­tain areas isn’t dir­ectly a prob­lem. But since all our (eco­nom­ical) sys­tems are based on growth and increas­ing num­bers, a prob­lem arises when shrink­age appears. Therefore, the effects of shrink­age are pain­ful. As a res­ult of shrink­age, houses become vacant or are on sale for many years, the value of real estate declines rap­idly, the crit­ical mass for the use of facil­it­ies evap­or­ates and areas impov­er­ish. These effects of pop­u­la­tion shrink­age put pres­sure on the liv­ing con­di­tions of the people in such areas.

Shrinkage, in com­bin­a­tion with other demo­graphic devel­op­ments as the aging of the pop­u­la­tion is there­fore one of the biggest chal­lenges of the European future. Many politi­cians, chair­men and man­agers real­ize and embrace the chal­lenges that pop­u­la­tion shrink­age is rais­ing. But the people who are actu­ally liv­ing in (future) shrink­ing regions aren’t aware of these.”

2. Why did you decide a game would be a good way to deal with this issue?

We wanted to cre­ate a pro­cess that makes inhab­it­ants of shrink­ing regions aware of the situ­ation that they’re in. This pro­cess would show them the pos­sib­il­it­ies that emerge when they accept the ‘shrinking-challenge’ and come into action. In this per­spect­ive, the choice for a game is quite evid­ent. A game enables the pos­sib­il­ity for people to engage with lar­ger themes and phe­nom­ena that don’t seem to harm their daily lives yet. Instead of read­ing about shrink­age, play­ers exper­i­ence all the actions in the first per­son. And by using a game, play­ers are chal­lenged to use their creativity.

We spe­cific­ally chose for an altern­ate real­ity game (ARG), because this game type puts an extra layer on top of real­ity. The game isn’t only being played in the ‘vir­tual world’, but also in the real, phys­ical world. The game ‘Leve de Krimp!’ (‘Let’s shrink!’) enables play­ers to exper­i­ence their daily lives in a future where nobody anti­cip­ated on the shrink­age of the pop­u­la­tion. So: play it before you live it!”

21-3-2013 Eindpresentatie Studio for unsolicited architecture design & e-culture

3. How did you design the game, what did your pro­cess look like?

We designed our game with help from Kars. As urban design­ers we are quite famil­iar with pro­cesses that chal­lenge inhab­it­ants to cooper­ate in (spa­tial) devel­op­ments. But we’ve never used a game before as a guide for these type of pro­cesses. We designed the game from a pos­it­ive per­spect­ive, to break through the neg­at­ive con­nota­tions that often sur­round depop­u­la­tion. Players are shown a ‘com­mon future’ in 2039 where nobody anti­cip­ated on shrink­age and we offer them the pos­sib­il­ity to change the daily lives of four char­ac­ters in 2039, by doing actions in 2013. It’s a kind of ‘back to the future’- scen­ario: chan­ging the future by act­ing in the present.

Our pro­cess wasn’t totally fluid, but doing a small pilot really helped us out. This pilot showed imme­di­ately which game-elements were work­ing prop­erly, which ele­ments were ‘catchy’ and which aspects needed fur­ther atten­tion. Also, the pilot turned out to provide us with good argu­ments in con­ver­sa­tions about the fur­ther devel­op­ment of the game with pos­sible partners.”

4. What did you learn from the pilot you ran?

We ran the small scale pilot in the Achterhoek, a region in the east of Holland, which needs to anti­cip­ate on the depop­u­la­tion it will be facing.

The pilot was played by three inhab­it­ants dur­ing a week and a half. The play­ers have ima­gined them­selves liv­ing in the year 2039. The pro­cess and the res­ults are sur­pris­ing and prom­ising. We learned that the game actu­ally cre­ated the aware­ness on the effects of shrink­age, which can be a very abstract theme. We also learned that these people got extremely motiv­ated to cre­ate ideas and solu­tions. One of the play­ers has been cap­tiv­ated by the assign­ment he got within the game – look­ing for a new (civic) eco­nomy within an aged and depop­u­lated soci­ety — so much that he decided to con­tinue the research he star­ted on 3D print­ing in the Achterhoek for the next 5 years.

Though the pilot was played with half fab­ric­ated ele­ments of the game, it showed us which ele­ments are work­ing very well and which need to be developed more or dif­fer­ently. During the pilot we dis­covered that the char­ac­ters in the year 2039 should be given a very prom­in­ent pos­i­tion in the storytelling. Which we did after the pilot.

We also learned it is very import­ant to have a sense of col­lectiv­ity dur­ing play, there­fore we are very happy that we man­aged to start and end the pilot hav­ing all the play­ers present at the same time and place. During the pilot we made sure there would be reg­u­lar con­tact with the play­ers by email. After the pilot we real­ized two strong ele­ments of this spe­cific altern­ate real­ity game: the excite­ment of chan­ging the future from the present and the com­bin­a­tion of phys­ical gath­er­ings and online communication.”

5. What’s next for the project?

We made a bid book. This bid book is a pro­pos­i­tion for part­ners which are deal­ing with shrink­ing regions and have a high interest in cre­at­ing a sense of urgency and aware­ness for inhab­it­ants to start to co-anticipate on the effects of depopulation.

Let’s Shrink!’ (‘Leve de Krimp!’) con­sists of a gen­eric and a spe­cific part. The gen­eric part is the frame­work of the game which can be applied in dif­fer­ent regions that deal with depop­u­la­tion and aging as a strong demo­graphic change. The spe­cific part is the pos­sib­il­ity of shap­ing the con­tent of the game to the cul­ture, men­tal­ity and rel­ev­ant themes within a shrink­ing region. For the next stage of the pro­ject Studio Papaver would like to work with part­ners who have a strong interest in the gen­eric part (such as min­is­tries and European pro­grams) and part­ners who have a strong interest in the spe­cific part (such as local organ­iz­a­tions and private parties). Our next step would be to play a lar­ger pilot and then fine tune the game to play it for real.”

Thank you Anne and Zineb and best of luck with devel­op­ing ‘Let’s Shrink!’ further.

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