Making Camparc

This is a writeup of how we went about mak­ing Camparc, a pan­or­amic cam­era ball.

The story starts in July 2014 when STRP asks us to make a pub­lic space game for a ‘scene’ — one of the events lead­ing up to their 2015 bien­nial. They were look­ing for some­thing eye-catching, access­ible to a broad audi­ence, fun for both par­ti­cipants and spec­tat­ors, and of course it would need to be about tech in some way. The game would be played in the Strijp-S area of Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

We cycled through a num­ber of con­cepts together. An early idea was focused on doing things with large balls and maybe track­ing them with cam­eras. A later concept was titled ‘Selfietopia’ and pro­posed a play­ground filled with cam­era toys for mak­ing selfies with.


Camparc sketch

Ingredients from those earlier con­cepts came together in Camparc: cam­era toys such as Panono and Bubl. New ways of see­ing such as goal-line tech­no­logy. The pleas­ure of play­ing with a huge ball in both Katamari Damacy and the earth ball games of the New Games movement.

Camparc moodboard

It was our hope Camparc would let people play­fully explore new ways of tech­no­lo­gic­ally aug­men­ted see­ing, and that it would give people a tool with which to explore the Strijp-S area in new ways.

Many dif­fer­ent things had to come together in the final exper­i­ence. For example, get­ting a video stream from the balls to show up on an LED trailer turned out to be non-trivial. But here I will talk about the design of the hard­ware and I will also go into how we cre­ated ana­morphic puzzles for people to play with.

The Gilliam-Dyson Direction

So the start­ing point was to do some­thing with big balls. We went on a hunt for a good base and even­tu­ally settled on water balls. They are large, trans­par­ent and afford open­ing and clos­ing. Perfect for our purposes.

The notion of trans­par­ency and see­ing the tech inside of the ball lead to a dir­ec­tion for the visual lan­guage which was equal parts Terry Gilliam sci-fi prop and James Dyson vacuum cleaner.

Terry Gilliam × James Dyson

We worked with Aldo Hoeben on this pro­ject. He was respons­ible for the design and devel­op­ment of the balls as well as the soft­ware behind them. The cool thing about work­ing with Aldo was that he has a back­ground in indus­trial design, has an artistic prac­tice focused on pro­jec­tion map­ping and pan­or­amic pho­to­graphy and is a 3D print­ing enthu­si­ast to boot. In other words, his unique set of skills was a per­fect match for the chal­lenges of this project.

It was Aldo who start­ing from my Gilliam-Dyson dir­ec­tion cre­ated the brightly col­oured cus­tom 3D-printed parts which give Camparc its con­struct­iv­ist look. It is an aspect of the pro­ject I am still very proud of. More than once dur­ing a con­ver­sa­tion with a player about ‘how it works’ was I able to simply point to every single com­pon­ent and talk them through it.

Detail of Camparc's 3D-printed components

Another neat aspect of the balls is that all the hard­ware is sus­pen­ded in a ‘poor man’s gyro­scope’. The weight of all the com­pon­ents keeps the cam­era more or less upright all the time. The wob­bli­ness of the cam­era gives the images some wel­come dynam­ism, emphas­ising that you are indeed look­ing at foot­age from a rolling ball.

Anamorphic Puzzles

Throughout the pro­ject and actu­ally still now, there is a ten­sion between free and dir­ec­ted play. We were inter­ested in giv­ing people a shared bit of ludic pub­lic fur­niture. But we were also curi­ous what kind of games could be played with this new plaything. In addi­tion, we were very inter­ested in tak­ing over the area we would be play­ing in with some kind of visual markings.

One obvi­ous start­ing point for a more struc­tured play­ful activ­ity to offer play­ers was ana­morphosis: “a dis­tor­ted pro­jec­tion or per­spect­ive requir­ing the viewer to use spe­cial devices or occupy a spe­cific vant­age point to recon­sti­t­ute the image.”

Geometric perspective-localized painting by Felice Varini

The Camparc balls would be stream­ing a donut-shaped video to an LED trailer in the middle of the play area. We thought it would be cool to cre­ate geo­met­ric draw­ings that would appear to float in the cam­era image.

As is often the case in our pro­jects, we then needed to invent a pro­cess that would enable us to do this. In the end we man­aged to pull it off with an inter­est­ing assemblage of off-the-shelf soft­ware and hard­ware and lots of mask­ing tape and patience.

We used an iPhone on a tri­pod with the same pan­or­amic lens attached to it as we would be using inside of the balls. We made sure the lens was more or less at the same height as it would be in the ball. Using air­play we then streamed the cam­era view to a mac­book and we used a simple app to over­lay the image we would be draw­ing on top of the cam­era feed.

Camparc anamorphic drawing test

Then it was a mat­ter of find­ing a nice spot to draw our ana­morphic puzzle and mask­ing it out (which involves lots of check­ing and recheck­ing between the draw­ing and the image on the mac­book screen). At the game’s run on Strijp-S we used spray chalk to fill in the shapes.

A shout-out to our friends at Pony Design Club who did an excel­lent job on all the visual mater­i­als for Camparc and who also painstak­ingly cre­ated the final set of ana­morphic puzzles at Strijp-S for the game’s event.

Anamorphic drawing at Strijp-S

The end res­ult looked very inter­est­ing and people enjoyed fig­ur­ing out how to place the ball exactly so that the image kind of popped into view on the big screen.

People playing with anamorphic puzzle

A Tribute to ‘Planet Pass’

I could not let the oppor­tun­ity pass to stage a trib­ute to one of our sources of inspir­a­tion, the New Games move­ment. So in addi­tion to free play with the ball and the ana­morphic puzzles, we sched­uled a few games of Planet Pass with the people in attendance.

It was a rather glor­i­ous exper­i­ence. We also cap­tured the foot­age from these ses­sions, a few clips of which made their way into the final video.

'Planet Pass' in the New Games book


I found it very inter­est­ing to see how we man­aged to get an increas­ingly large group of people to join us just by start­ing to play the game and invit­ing people to help us out. The scale of the Camparc balls affords col­lab­or­at­ive play so very eas­ily. Outside of the Planet Pass ses­sions there were many occa­sions where people would spon­tan­eously start to play together.


This is another qual­ity of the pro­ject that I am rather fond of. Camparc is a play­ful tech­no­logy which very eleg­antly lets people step into and out of play­ing alone or together.

Mark II

So that is the story of the mak­ing of Camparc. After this first ver­sion we were com­mis­sioned to improve on it. This second ver­sion, which we decided to name ‘Camparc Mark II’, was released as part of the STRP bien­nial. The most not­able change is that we exchanged the large screen for a VR head­set. Once again we encountered many chal­lenges dur­ing the making-of. But that is a story for another day…

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Week 318

Let’s start at the end. On Thursday and Friday I par­ti­cip­ated in a two-day work­shop on the future of energy at FreedomLab. Meanwhile, Alper moved apart­ments. I learned a lot about the nuts and bolts of our energy sys­tem and came away optim­istic about the switch to renew­ables. Alper learned a lot about how to get a wash­ing machine down a flight of stairs.

Earlier in the week I atten­ded the first of a series of co-creation ses­sions organ­ised by State of Flux, aimed at devel­op­ing a new tem­por­ary pro­gram for the Buikslotermeerplein area in Amsterdam Noord. I was there to observe their pro­cess. Once all the ses­sions have fin­ished we will develop a concept for a trans­la­tion of this pro­cess to a tab­letop game, the aim of which is to enable oth­ers to repro­gram the pub­lic spaces they make use of every­day without expert help. This is pro­ject HENDO.

On the Free Birds front we pre­pared the latest release for dis­tri­bu­tion to the Airborne Museum. The game now allows play­ers to share game con­tent to Museumkids and we had to make sure it also works with that website’s live envir­on­ment. Meanwhile, Alper spent some time research­ing how best to go about imple­ment­ing a future improve­ment to the game’s chat user interface.

On to our side pro­jects: We sent out a Bycatch news­let­ter to cus­tom­ers and sub­scribers. (Sign up here to receive the next one.) For Cuppings, Alper and Simon made a list of final things to fix for the next big release.

Over the week­end I headed over to Ianus to lend a hand with his annual apple har­vest and Alper had cof­fee and beers with @neb and friends.

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Week 317

A quiet week for once, now that we have wrapped up most of the cur­rent pro­jects on deck. The slower pace took some get­ting used to even though it is a wel­come change from the con­stant pres­sure of the past few months.

On the Free Birds front, we made some final fixes to the build we fin­ished the week before. The cli­ent came over to the stu­dio for a sprint review which went very smoothly. Later in the week the team con­vened for a ret­ro­spect­ive which once again yiel­ded some use­ful learn­ings to apply to our pro­cess in sprints to come. By the end of the week we had groomed our back­log a bit so that we are all ready for the next and final phase of the project.

For Bycatch, we pre­pared a news­let­ter to be sent out soon (sign up here). We talked to Lekha about her exper­i­ences at XOXO. The game was a big suc­cess at the tab­letop event. We also ful­filled some more orders and I took some time to make our web­site favicon ret­ina with thanks to Mr. Gruber.

Alper made use of the down­time to do some work on a next release of Cuppings which I’m told will drop soon. He also had Lorenzo over for a sneak pre­view of his talk on Japanese minigames.

Lorenzo Pilia talking about Japanese minigames

Finally, Alper put some words together on his blog about con­ver­sa­tional user inter­faces, a trend we’ve been fol­low­ing and also apply­ing to some recent pro­jects, includ­ing KOKORO and Free Birds.

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Week 316

Another week largely taken up by Free Birds. The whole team (Alper, Tim, Niels and myself) worked together on fin­ish­ing another release, which we did with only a small bit of over­time on Friday. With each sprint we learn more about the intric­a­cies of Unity’s UI sys­tem.

We also delivered a spec and a budget for TEDASUKE, which the cli­ent will use to back up a grant applic­a­tion for the product’s devel­op­ment. We used a list of user stor­ies as a light-weight spe­cific­a­tion. To arrive at a budget we then assigned a size estim­ate to each story (using t-shirt sizes) and for each size we assigned an aver­age amount of hours for the dis­cip­lines involved. The whole pro­cess was rel­at­ively pain­less but did yield the required amount of detail.

In the lead up to Lekha’s pres­ence at XOXO we updated the Bycatch web­site with a link to our artist state­ment and an endorse­ment from Lea Schönfelder. Perhaps most sig­ni­fic­antly, we quietly switched to char­ging our cus­tom­ers in dol­lars in stead of euros, for vari­ous reas­ons too bor­ing to go into here.

I updated the page for Camparc in our port­fo­lio to include the excel­lent video made by Sylvan of our run at STRP this year. I also added a descrip­tion of how the whole thing works now, as well as some more photos.

And finally, on the week­end Alper vis­ited some new spots for an upcom­ing update of Cuppings.

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Week 315

Last week once again was very much a heads down kind of week. Alper more or less exclus­ively worked on Free Birds. We also talked to the cli­ent about the next phase of the pro­ject, which kicks in after we fin­ish this sprint, and involves scal­ing up to mul­tiple museums. Furthermore, we pre­pared a bug fix release, and we received a first batch of sur­veys from play­ers of the Airborne Museum beta, which were largely positive.

On the Bycatch front, I taught around 30 people how to play the game at a Hacking Habitat event. People seemed to enjoy it, and much dis­cus­sion happened dur­ing and after play­ing the game, which was a lot of fun to see happen.

People playing Bycatch at Hacking Habitat Life-Hack Marathon #3 'How to Cross Borders'

On to the remain­ing smal­ler con­sult­ing engage­ments. For SHIJIMI I atten­ded a pitch for the pro­duc­tion of the concept we helped develop. For TEDASUKE I draf­ted a spec for the product we’ve helped envi­sion in an agile man­ner, by whip­ping up a list of user stor­ies. And finally, for KOKORO, I tied up a few loose ends left over from the pre­vi­ous week’s delivery.

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Week 314

This week’s big pro­ject was fin­ish­ing a second ver­sion of the KOKORO prototype.

Alper and I spent a couple of days writ­ing javas­cript, html and sass, as well as good old copy. By Friday we had man­aged to com­plete most of the items in our back­log, and were quite sat­is­fied with the res­ult. Next up is demo­ing the res­ults to the client.

Earlier in the week the Free Birds team con­vened for a sprint ret­ro­spect­ive, and to plan the next sprint. It was the first time we did a proper ret­ro­spect­ive and I was pleased with the amount of valu­able pro­cess improve­ments it yiel­ded. The res­ults of the plan­ning ses­sion were approved by the cli­ent soon after, so we’re all set for another sprint this week and the next.

On the Bycatch front, Alper emp­tied his stock by ful­filling the last of the bump in sales we got after the XOXO announce­ments. And I did some work on our web­site and shop­ping cart so that it would also accept PayPal.

Finally, for TEDASUKE, we pro­cessed some final bits of feed­back on the mockups we’d delivered the week before, and we made a plan for how to go about the final deliv­er­able, a spec and a budget.

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Week 313

The big one this week as in the weeks before was Free Birds. After a suit­able amount of UI wrangling, bug hunt­ing (and squash­ing) we delivered the first pub­lic beta on sched­ule at the end of the week. It is now play­able in Airborne Museum. I am super proud of what the team has achieved, and I look for­ward to hear­ing what vis­it­ors make of it. Meanwhile, we will start plan­ning work on the next release.

Another not­able event was XOXO’s announce­ment that Bycatch is part of their Tabletop selec­tion. (A huge honor!) This lead to us being Boing Boing-ed, and with that, the Twitter floodgates opened…

People tend to respond strongly to our little card game. Many “get it” and sup­port our efforts, which is great.

Some come at it from a tra­di­tional boardgam­ing frame of mind and seem to have a hard time with the notion of eth­ical play. For a great counter­example, check out this redditor’s com­ment on Tom Vasel’s mer­ci­less review.

Still oth­ers dis­like us using a game to dis­cuss the topic of drone war­fare, pos­sibly because in their eyes it trivi­al­izes a ser­i­ous sub­ject mat­ter. Here’s an (admit­tedly extreme) example of the lat­ter case:

Thankfully, some people whose work in art, games and act­iv­ism we hold in the highest regard were kind enough to sup­port us:

So yeah, Bycatch is mak­ing some waves, which is great. By the end of the week Alper (who is tak­ing care of ful­fil­ment) had a con­sid­er­able amount of orders to put in the mail.

On to the remain­ing pro­jects. For TEDASUKE Simon delivered a first round of mockups which we got reviewed by the cli­ents. They seem to be happy with the dir­ec­tion so it looks like we will be able to deliver a second and final round next week.

I also did some read­ing up on agile plan­ning and estim­at­ing for a final bit of work we’ll do TEDASUKE, which con­sists of a pre­lim­in­ary spec and budget.

For KOKORO I did some more pre­lim­in­ary design work in pre­par­a­tion for some more intens­ive work on a second pro­to­type together with Alper in the week to come.

One more thing of note: Alper provided an intro­duct­ory talk for the screen­ing of Free to Play (a recom­men­ded doc­u­ment­ary on esports) at the lovely Game Science Center.

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Week 312

The big focus this week was once again Free Birds, our iBeacon-enabled museum game app for fam­il­ies, about free­dom. Alper con­tin­ued devel­op­ment, Tim worked on art and UI, and I did a lot of build­ing and test­ing, and production-type stuff.

On TEDASUKE, I got everything ready for brief­ing Simon on Friday, who will help us out with some visual design. This mainly con­sisted of fin­ish­ing wireframes.

And finally, on KOKORO, I took some time to think through some of the more com­plic­ated parts of what need to build, and came up with lots of ques­tions for the cli­ent. Once we have those answered, we can con­tinue design and development.

So yeah, very much a heads-down kind of week, with at least a couple more of those in the imme­di­ate future. Onwards.

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Week 311

The big thing this week was the start of a new sprint on Free Birds. Niels and Tim joined us again for copy and art respect­ively, while Alper donned his developer hat, and I switched between my pro­du­cer, agile coach, and designer roles. There’s a lot to do, as usual, but we’ve made good progress.

On to the remain­ing pro­jects. I pro­duced a first round of wire­frames for TEDASUKE and reviewed them with the cli­ent. For KOKORO, we wrote user stor­ies and sched­uled the next sprint. And finally, for BANKEN, I tested the release can­did­ate (so close!)

Not much move­ment on the Bycatch front, but we hope to make some cool con­fer­ence appear­ance announce­ments soon.

And finally, two pub­lic­a­tions: Sebastian reviewed Play Matters in Game Studies, and I repor­ted on an auto­mated game design sym­posium.

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Procedural Instruments Enable Powerful Ways of Making and Seeing Playable Systems

No Man’s Sky is so big, the developers built space probes to explore it for them.” That’s from a Polygon report on what is prob­ably the most hyped video­game of the moment. The main thing that seems to fas­cin­ate people about No Man’s Sky is its extens­ive use of pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion (PCG). Put simply, PCG involves using soft­ware to gen­er­ate game con­tent in stead of cre­at­ing it by hand.

No Man's Sky

The game con­tent cre­ated in this way can be any­thing. Visuals are the most com­mon thing, but it can also include stuff that play­ers inter­act with, such as the arti­fi­cial intel­li­gence of a com­puter con­trolled oppon­ent or the place­ment of items in a level.

A few weeks ago I atten­ded a sym­posium organ­ised by the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (HvA) on “auto­mated game design”. Over the course of the day vari­ous research­ers and prac­ti­tion­ers presen­ted their efforts related to this topic.

Anders Bouwer of the HvA opened the sym­posium by talk­ing about how the aim of game design auto­ma­tion is to speed things up. This can be achieved by accel­er­at­ing the trans­ition from design to soft­ware devel­op­ment, and by accel­er­at­ing the flow of feed­back from playtests back to design. The main way to do this is to cre­ate tools that sit between design and soft­ware development.

Two approaches to game design auto­ma­tion became appar­ent to me over the course of the day. The first and most obvi­ous approach is to use soft­ware to auto­mate work that a designer would oth­er­wise have to do manu­ally. This is part of the com­mon story told about No Man’s Sky. The game’s developer is a small inde­pend­ent com­pany which does not have the resources to cre­ate the game’s huge galaxy by hand. So in stead, they have craf­ted soft­ware tools which gen­er­ate plan­ets, veget­a­tion, anim­als and so on.

The second approach is to provide a designer with what are essen­tially tools for inspir­a­tion. In stead of auto­mat­ing things a human could also do by hand, a designer is enabled to do things she could simply not do without those tools. So it is not about speed and volume, but about qual­ity. It is focused on pro­cess in stead of product. Such tools can poten­tially sur­prise the designer. Conversely, the stuff pro­duced by No Man’s Sky’s tools must adhere to rules which have been pre­de­ter­mined by designers.

In one of the symposium’s first talks Joris Dormans argued for the lat­ter approach.1 He argued for the use of pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion tools in the ser­vice of improv­ing the game design pro­cess. He wants them to be tools to think with.

Thinking with a tool implies a kind of part­ner­ship. In stead of being the slave or mas­ter of a tech­no­logy, we become col­lab­or­at­ors. In pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion research, this approach is explored through mixed-initiative tools. “Mixed-initiative” refers to the fact that such tools allow for a con­tinu­ous dia­logue between designer and soft­ware. One example is Tanagra, a level design tool for 2D plat­formers. It gen­er­ates levels in real time while the designer manip­u­lates geo­metry or a more abstract rep­res­ent­a­tion of the level’s pacing.


Mixed-initiative tools such as Tanagra are excit­ing because they aug­ment a designer’s cap­ab­il­it­ies bey­ond speed and volume. Because of their fluid nature they become some­thing like a musical instru­ment. A designer can per­form with these tools. They allow for some­thing sim­ilar to sketch­ing. There is a real poten­tial for sur­prise here, and for dis­cov­ery. When mak­ing such tools the ques­tion is not what out­come it should reli­ably pro­duce, but what pro­cess it should reli­ably support.

In his talk, Joris described his ideal tool as a thing which gives him a lot of vari­ations. He should then be able to tell it what he wants to see more of. In this way, a designer can more eas­ily scan through a game’s pos­sib­il­ity space. But this way of work­ing does not enable her to see the full range of things a tool might gen­er­ate. The designer in this case is a bit like the Hello Games probe, scan­ning the pos­sib­il­ity space of No Man’s Sky, one anim­ated gif at a time.

What if we could zoom out, though? At this year’s Game Developer Conference, Tanagra cre­ator Gillian Smith, accom­pan­ied by Julian Togelius, talked about “the power and peril of PCG. Towards the end of this talk, they show work on under­stand­ing the range of out­comes afforded by pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion tools.

The approach is simple: first, cri­teria are determ­ined by which out­comes are scored. In the case of Tanagra, a num­ber of levels are gen­er­ated and scored on how hard they are, and on how lin­ear they are. Then, each level is plot­ted on a heat map. The res­ult allows us to see the shape of Tanagra’s pos­sib­il­ity space. In this way the biases in a par­tic­u­lar con­fig­ur­a­tion is more eas­ily uncovered.

2D histograms visualizing generative space

Enabled with such visu­al­isa­tions of pos­sib­il­ity space, pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion tools become instru­ments in a second sense, namely that of sci­entific instru­ments. They can be used like micro­scopes or mac­ro­scopes. We can use them to “see inside of” games and the tools used to make games. They afford power­ful new ways of seeing.

It is this prom­ise of new ways of see­ing that I find most excit­ing about pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion tools of the mixed-initiative type, or “pro­ced­ural instru­ments” as I pro­pose we call them from now on.

Games are just one kind of algorithmic cul­ture, and more and more kinds of algorithms are used to gen­er­ate media. However, in media cri­ti­cism the term “algorithm” is often used rather naively. What the study of pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion tools can teach us is that there is no such thing as a sin­gu­lar algorithm that gen­er­ates a piece of media. They are assemblages of dif­fer­ent approaches to com­pu­ta­tion, com­bined with dif­fer­ent design practices.

Attending this sym­posium on auto­mated game design has made me excited about pro­ced­ural con­tent gen­er­a­tion tools aimed at aug­ment­ing the cap­ab­il­it­ies of design­ers. The big chal­lenge ahead is get­ting such tools out of the research labs and into the hands of prac­ti­tion­ers. This is a non-trivial task. Many of these tools are quite com­plic­ated and expens­ive to get right.

A dis­sem­in­a­tion of such tools will only hap­pen if we recog­nise the power they afford us. If we want to become bet­ter at mak­ing games and play­able sys­tems more broadly, we need tools with which we can per­form bet­ter, and with which we can see bet­ter. We need pro­ced­ural instruments.

Addendum: Cases Presented During the Symposium

  • Loren Roosendaal (IC3D Media) talked about how they made earth­quake dis­aster relief train­ing soft­ware for the Indonesian gov­ern­ment. They were on a tight budget, so they cre­ated a tool which col­lapses build­ings. These col­lapsed build­ings were then used as a start­ing point for level design. He also talked about nego­ti­ation train­ing soft­ware developed for the Dutch Ministry of Defence called Cultura. It meas­ures player per­form­ance. IC3D Media and the MoD use these meas­ure­ments as input for bet­ter level design. They might in future do some­thing like A/B test­ing of dia­log options.
  • Thomas Buijtenweg (NHTV) demon­strated a gen­er­ator he developed for col­lect­ible card game (CCG) cards. The gen­er­ator provides a designer with a bunch of card options which they can then select from. It bal­ances all options using a for­mula for the card cost.
  • Daniel Karavolos (HvA) provided sev­eral examples of how he used a tool called Ludoscope to gen­er­ate video­game levels. It is based on graphs, grids and trans­form­a­tion rules. The approach focuses on mod­el­ing the pro­cess of cre­at­ing game con­tent. (PDF)
  • Rafael Bidarra (TU Delft) showed two pro­jects. The first demon­strated gen­er­a­tion of a meadow in real time based on a veget­a­tion model. The second showed how we they used grammar-based pop­u­la­tion gen­er­a­tion to con­nect gen­er­ated game geo­graphy with gen­er­ated game stor­ies. They gen­er­ate set­tle­ments in the geo­graphy and rela­tion­ships between those set­tle­ments based on resources and needs. These in turn give rise to “stor­ies” (inter­ac­tions between indi­vidu­als in the set­tle­ments). The place­ment of set­tle­ments is done in a mixed-initiative way.
  • Stefan Leijnen (HvA) and Paul Brinkkemper (Firebrush Studios) talked about MoneyMaker Deluxe, a game about frac­tional reserve bank­ing. They used Machinations to describe mod­els, which were then used as a blue­print for the gen­er­at­ors in the game. (PDF)
  1. Joris is asso­ci­ated with Hubbub. His research on engin­eer­ing emer­gence was instru­mental in start­ing the HvA’s work in this area. []
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